Swift is an object storage service similar to Amazon S3. It mainly focuses on being extremely reliable, not losing any of your data and horizontal scalability. It expects some of your disks and computers to fail occasionally and tries not to lose any data. Your users won’t even notice when some of your servers stop working.
As a user, you can create a container (equivalent of Amazon’s bucket) and then upload files to it. That is pretty much the whole thing. An object is simply some file or any piece of data with metadata glued to it.
There is no hierarchy as in a file system, but you can
/ into the file names and then listing only files with a certain prefix.
- backup service
- static page hosting (see Jekyll)
- VM snapshots backup
- photo gallery
- video storage
- storing Glance images
Please keep in mind that I’m simplifying here a lot and trying to avoid jargon. For more detailed info, look into the Swift architecture docs.
The basic idea is to keep 3 copies of each file, as far away from each other as possible, so that a flood in a single server room does not lose all 3 copies. Even when some data servers die, Swift will restore the copies on some other available servers, so that there will be 3 copies available again. (The number of copies is configurable, but I’m assuming it to be 3 for simplicity.)
There are two main types of Swift servers. The first one is the proxy server, which in this case means “the server that knows where my data should be”, not an HTTP proxy. The other type is the data server, which contains the disks, watches the data for corruption and copies them if a disk dies. You can combine them together or even do a single node installation, but in practice these two tend to be separated.
+-------------------+ | Proxy Server | +---------+---------+ | +--------+---------+ +---------+----+ +-------+------+ | Data Server | | Data Server | | | | | |+-+ +-+ +-+ | |+-+ +-+ +-+ | || | | | | | | || | | | | | | || | | | | | | || | | | | | | |+-+ +-+ +-+ | |+-+ +-+ +-+ | +--------------+ +--------------+
The Proxy Servers
When the proxy server gets a request, it doesn’t really know by itself if the data exist in the datacenter. There is no central database that keeps track of this and therefore no single point of failure. All it does is computing a hash of it and decides using a hash ring where the file should be. Then it asks the appropriate data servers if they have the file.
When you upload a file, the proxy server decides where it should go using the hash ring. Since we want to have 3 copies of the file that are as far from each other as possible, it will ask 3 data servers to upload it. Even if you only have one server, it will at least put the file on different disks. If you have set up zones, it will put them to different ones (I’ll get to that). More than half of the writes have to succeed, only then does the user get back a success return code. In this case, it means two writes have to go well.
The Data Servers
A data server is simply a Linux box with some hard drives formatted ideally with XFS. RAID is not recommended, it isn’t that helpful in this case.
There are three kinds of data servers - account, container and object, but they are usually running together on one machine. However, you can run them separately or use some disks only for a certain service. For example, you could make the account and container services use SSDs and leave the standard hard disks for objects. Account and container servers generally require higher IOPS and can take good advantage of caching, so it makes sense to deploy them separately from object servers in some deployments.
Swift itself doesn’t manage user accounts, this is done by some authentication service like Keystone. For Swift, an account is just metadata and a list of container names that belong to that user. It handles them similarly as objects, i.e., keeps three copies of them.
A container is just metadata and a list of object names. Again, it gets handled similarly as objects (i.e. keeps three copies of each).
Imagine you have around 10 data servers. Half of them are on one side of the building, the other half on the other. You want to make sure there is always at least one copy of an object (or container, or account) on each side of the building, so that if either part burns down in a fire, no data loss or outage will occur. To do this, put servers from one group to the first zone, the rest of them to the other zone. This way, when Swift tries to put the copies as far from each other as possible, it will know that the zones are somewhat independent and will put a copy into each.
Of course, there should be at least one proxy server on each side of the building, nothing will work without one. However, the proxies don’t really “belong” to zones, they all have the same information. When a user makes a request, there is no preference about which proxy will handle it, making this an unsuitable solution for servers that are hundreds of kilometers away from each other.
This is a new feature in the Grizzly release that allows you to have globally distributed clusters. One of your regions may be in Berlin, the other in London. Regions are location aware - this means that a user in the UK will get served by servers in London.
Swift will keep a copy of all data in both regions, but not immediately after writing it, since this would be too slow. At first, it will only write it to the closest region and later move a copy to the remote region.